Enquiry-based learning is a powerful means for students to learn both scientific content and scientific reasoning together. Different educators and researchers have described enquiry-based learning activities in different ways (e.g., Banchi & Bell 2008, Chinn & Malhotra 2002, Hunter et al. 2010, National Research Council 2000, Ontario Ministry of Education 2013), but most agree that the essence of enquiry is learning science in ways that mirror authentic scientific research practices, or “learning science as science is done” (Hunter et al. 2010). Scientific practices (sometimes called core skills, or reasoning skills, or critical thinking) are ways of thinking about and doing science. A framework for enumerating scientific practices (from the U.S.’s Next Generation Science Standards; NRC 2012) is:
Gaining competency at these practices is a critical part of becoming scientifically literate, and can be taught explicitly in astronomy education activities. We encourage activity authors to consider deeply how to incorporate teaching scientific practices into activities they design.
A framework for describing enquiry in astronomy (adapted from the Institute for Scientist & Engineer Educators, Hunter et al. 2014) is:
Enquiry activities often involve students developing their own questions to investigate based on intriguing observed phenomena, working in groups to plan and carry out an investigation to answer their question, and communicating their results with classmates to give everyone a fuller understanding (e.g., Institute for Inquiry at the Exploratorium, 2014). These activities are learner-centered, focused on what the learners do rather than on what the teacher does, but they are also not a free-for-all; the teacher has specific learning goals for students and can nudge and guide students towards those as the activity progresses.
Education research supports teaching via enquiry-based activities. General findings from education research on how people learn science (e.g., NRC 2000) include:
Enquiry-based activities tend to teach science in ways that are in line with these and other research findings; in addition, education research tends to find that enquiry-based methods are effective at teaching conceptual understanding of scientific principles and comprehension of the nature of scientific reasoning and investigation. Inquiry also promotes learning by students from a wide diversity of backgrounds (e.g., NRC 2000). National reports in many countries on improving science education emphasize the importance of learning via inquiry-based methods (e.g., PKAL 2006). For these many reasons, we encourage activity authors to consider how they can design astronomy education activities that incorporate inquiry. (Nevertheless, we add that inquiry is only one tool in the educator’s toolbox, and other teaching techniques play important roles as well.)
Designing enquiry-based activities can be challenging, so we offer a few suggested questions to consider during the design process (and in reviewing activities):
For feedback, questions, and ideas about enquiry-based teaching and learning, please contact the astroEDU editors.
References & Further Reading:
Banchi, H., & Bell, R., The Many Levels of Enquiry, Science and Children, National Science Teachers Association, 46(2), 26-29 (2008) http://learningcenter.nsta.org/files/sc0810_26.pdf
Chinn C. A., & Malhotra, B. A., Epistemologically Authentic Inquiry in Schools: A Theoretical Framework for Evaluating Inquiry Tasks, Science Education, 86, 175 (2002) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/sce.10001/abstract
Hunter L., Metevier A.J., Seagroves S., Kluger-Bell B., Inquiry Framework and Indicators, (Santa Cruz, USA: Institute for Scientist & Engineer Educators, 2014) http://isee.ucsc.edu/projects/inquiry-framework.html
Hunter, L., Metevier, A.J., Seagroves, S., Kluger-Bell, B., Porter, J., Raschke, L.M., Jonsson, P., Shaw, J., Quan, T.K., Montgomery, R., Cultivating Scientist- and Engineer-Educators 2010: The Evolving Professional Development Program in Learning from Inquiry in Practice, L. Hunter & A.J. Metevier, eds. ASP Conference Series 436: 3 (2010) http://aspbooks.org/publications/436/003.pdf
Institute for Inquiry, What is Inquiry?, (San Francisco, USA: Exploratorium, 2014) http://www.exploratorium.edu/ifi/about/philosophy.html
National Research Council (NRC), A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (Washington, DC, USA: National Academy Press, 2012); esp. p. 49 http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13165
National Research Council (NRC), How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School, (Washington, DC, USA: The National Academies Press, 2000); esp. Chapter 1 http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9853
National Research Council (NRC), Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning, (Washington, DC, USA: National Academy Press, 2000); esp. Chapters 1, 2, 6 http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9596
Ontario Ministry of Education, Inquiry-based Learning, Capacity Building Series (2013) http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/CBS_InquiryBased.pdf
PKAL, Report on Reports II: Recommendations for Urgent Action: Transforming America’s Scientific and Technological Infrastructure (Washington, DC, USA: Project Kaleidoscope, 2006) http://www.pkal.org/documents/ReportOnReportsII.cfm